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29/11/17
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Irrigation Water Management: Training Manual No. 1 - Introduction to Irrigation


Table of Contents
PREFACE
CHAPTER 1 - BASIC TERMS AND CALCULATIONS
1.1 Introduction to surface area
1.1.1 Triangles
1.1.2 Squares and Rectangles
1.1.3 Rhombuses and Parallelograms
1.1.4 Trapeziums
1.1.5 Circles
1.1.6 Metric Conversions
1.2 Surface areas of canal cross-sections and farms
1.2.1 Determination of the surface areas of canal cross-sections
1.2.2 Determination of the surface area of a farm
1.3 Introduction to volume
1.3.1 Units of volume
1.3.2 Volume of water on a field
1.4 Introduction to flow-rate
1.4.1 Definition
1.4.2 Calculation and Units
1.5 Introduction to percentage and per mil

1.5.1 Percentage
1.5.2 Per mil
1.6 Introduction to graphs
1.6.1 Example 1
1.6.2 Example 2
1.7 Test your knowledge
1.7.1 Questions
1.7.2 Answers
CHAPTER 2 - SOIL AND WATER
2.1 The soil
2.1.1 Soil composition
2.1.2 Soil profile
2.1.3 Soil texture
2.1.4 Soil structure
2.2 Entry of water into the soil
2.2.1 The infiltration process
2.2.2 Infiltration rate
2.2.3 Factors influencing the infiltration rate
2.3 Soil moisture conditions

2.3.1 Soil moisture content
2.3.2 Saturation
2.3.3 Field capacity
2.3.4 Permanent wilting point
2.4 Available water content
2.5 Groundwater table
2.5.1 Depth of the groundwater table
2.5.2 Perched groundwater table
2.5.3 Capillary rise
2.6 Soil erosion by water
2.6.1 Sheet erosion
2.6.2 Gully erosion
CHAPTER 3 - ELEMENTS OF TOPOGRAPHY
3.1 Slopes
3.1.1 Definition
3.1.2 Method of expressing slopes
3.1.3 Cross slopes
3.2 Elevation of a point
3.2.1 Definition
3.2.2 Bench mark and mean sea level
3.3 Contour lines
3.4 Maps
3.4.1 Description of a map
3.4.2 Interpretation of contour lines on a map
3.4.3 Mistakes in the contour lines
3.4.4 Scale of a map
CHAPTER 4 - RAINFALL AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
4.1 Rainfall
4.1.1 Amount of rainfall
4.1.2 Rainfall intensity
4.1.3 Rainfall Distribution
4.1.4 Effective Rainfall
4.2 Evapotranspiration
4.2.1 Evaporation
4.2.2 Transpiration
4.2.3 Evapotranspiration
4.2.4 Factors influencing crop evapotranspiration
CHAPTER 5 - IRRIGATION SYSTEM
5.1 Main intake structure and pumping station
5.1.1 Main intake structure
5.1.2 Pumping station
5.2 Conveyance and distribution system

5.2.1 Open canals
5.2.2 Canal structures
5.3 Field application systems
5.3.1 Surface irrigation
5.3.2 Sprinkler irrigation
5.3.3 Drip irrigation
5.4 Drainage system

CHAPTER 6 - DRAINAGE
6.1 Need for drainage
6.2 Different types of drainage
6.2.1 Surface drainage
6.2.2 Subsurface drainage
CHAPTER 7 - SALTY SOILS
7.1 Salinization
7.2 Salinity
7.2.1 Water salinity
7.2.2 Soil salinity
7.3 Crops and saline soils
7.4 Sodicity
7.5 Improvement of saline and sodic soils
7.5.1 Improvement of saline soils
7.5.2 Improvement of sodic soils
7.6 Prevention of salinization
7.6.1 Irrigation water quality
7.6.2 Irrigation management and drainage
 
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atruthuynong

Thành viên chính thức
29/11/17
13
5
Liên quan đến nuôi cá nước ngọt


Chapter 1 General Background Chapter 7 Main Water Intake Structures
Chapter 2 Site Selection and General Planning Chapter 8 Water Transport Structures
Chapter 3 Basic Materials for Construction and Pumps Chapter 9 Pond Inlet Structures
Chapter 4 Earthmoving Methods Chapter 10 Pond Outlet Structures
Chapter 5 Preparation of the Construction Site Chapter 11 Flood and Silt Control Structures
Chapter 6 Fish Pond Construction Chapter 12 Detailed Planning for Fish Farm Construction

1. GENERAL BACKGROUND


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Features of a fish pond
1.2 Different kinds of pond
According to the water source
According to the means of drainage
According to the construction materials
According to the construction method
According to the use of the pond​
1.3 Three basic pond types
Sunken pond
Barrage pond
Diversion pond​

1.4 Advantages and disadvantages of these types of pond
1.5 The physical characteristics of fish ponds
Size of fish ponds
Shape of fish ponds
When square ponds are preferable
When rectangular ponds are preferable
Selecting a rectangular shape
Selecting ponds shaped to the topography
Water depth in fish ponds​

1.6 How to select the pond to suit local topography
1.7 Laying out fish ponds
Ponds on a slope
Layout of ponds
Integrated farming
Integrated fish farming
Using pumps​
1.8 How to plan your fish farm
Considering its size and complexity
Laying out ponds according to their use
Laying out the access roads on your farm
Laying out the canald on your farm
Level differences on your fish farm
If you are building a barrage pond
If you are building a diversion pond
A pump might be necessary
Living on your fish farm​

2. SITE SELECTION AND GENERAL PLANNING

2.0 The importance of a good site
2.1 Preliminary decisions
2.2 Major considerations
Water supply and site selection
Soil quality and site selection
Local topography and site selection​
2.3 Other important characteristics of the site
2.4 How to locate and study potential sites quickly
2.5 How to evaluate a potential site
2.6 How to begin planning your fish farm construction
Detailed topographical survey of the site
Detailed soil survey of the site
Layout of the fish farm​
3. BASIC MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND PUMPS

3.0 Introduction
Selecting materials
Weight per unit volume of materials​

3.1 Bamboo and wood
Special characteristics of bamboo
Producing good bamboo pipes
Removing the partition walls of bamboo
Using bamboo as a construction material
Diverse characteristics of wood
Using and treating wood​

3.2 Clay bricks, cement or concrete blocks and stones
Clay bricks
Cement or concrete blocks
Stone​
3.3 Cement mortars
Selecting the sand
Checking the cleanliness of the sand
Washing the sand
Selecting the cement to use
Selecting the water to use
Selecting the mortar to prepare
Measuring the mortar components
Preparing a good mortar
Using a cement mortar​

3.4 Cement concrete
Finding good sources of materials
Selecting the kind of gravel and broken materials to use
Selecting the concrete to prepare
Preparing concrete by the free-pore volume method
Measuring the concrete components
Storing concrete components
Preparing good concrete by hand
Preparing good concrete mechanically
Correcting the consistency of concrete
Testing the quality of fresh concrete
Preparing forms for placing concrete
Placing concrete
Curing concrete
Making concrete blocks​

3.5 Concrete reinforcement
Selecting reinforcement
Using reinforcement
Preparing the steel bar reinforcement
Making reinforced concrete slabs
Making reinforced concrete​

3.6 Other construction materials
3.7 Gabions
Introduction
Advantages of gabions
Designing gabion structures
Building a gabion structure​

3.8 Water pipes and their discharge capacity
Most common types of pipes
Selecting concrete pipes
Selecting ceramic pipes
Selecting galvanized pipes and plastic pipes
Determining the pipe sizes required
Estimating pipe capacity
Designing longer pipelines
The effects of pipe fittings​

3.9 Selecting a water pump

4. EARTHMOVING METHODS

4.0 Introduction
4.1 How to move earth by hand or using simple containers
4.2 How to move earth with wheelbarrows
Making your own wheelbarrow
The Chinese wheelbarrow
Other wheelbarrows
Using a wheelbarrow​
4.3 Draught animal power
4.4 How to move earth with carts
4.5 How to move earth with an oil drum scraper
Materials for an oil drum scraper
Building the oil drum scraper
Operating the oil drum scraper​
4.6 How to move earth with a dam scoop
4.7 How to move earth with a boat, float or raft
4.8 Earthmoving machines

5. PREPARATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE

5.0 Introduction
5.1 Ropes, cables, chains, pulley blocks and fittings
Using the equipment
Selecting rope
Selecting cable
Maintaining cable quality
Selecting steel chain
Selecting fittings to use with traction lines​
5.2 Clearing the site
Where to clear
Proceeding with the clearing​
5.3 The cutting of trees
Preliminary work
Basic steps for cutting trees
Selecting equipment​
5.4 The removal of tree stumps
Digging out tree stumps by hand
Removing tree stumps with a hand winch
Using the monkey winch
Increasing pulling force
Using the winch with one pulley block
Using the winch with two pulley blocks
Removing stumps with a bulldozer​

5.5 Uprooting whole trees
Uprooting a whole tree using a winch
Uprooting a whole tree using a winch and pulley blocks
Uprooting a whole tree with machinery​

5.6 Surface soil removal

6. FISH POND CONSTRUCTION

6.0 Introduction
6.1 Characteristics of pond dikes
Resisting water pressure
Ensuring impermeability
Choosing the right height
Determining dike thickness​

6.2 Compacting earthen dikes
Expansion, compaction and settlement of soils
Determining the potential for compaction
Compacting for best results
Compacting soil by hand
Compacting soil with machinery​

6.3 Preparing the foundations of the dike
Treating the surface of the foundations
Building a cut-off trench
Backfilling a stream channel​

6.4 Calculating dike and excavation volumes
Calculating the width of the dike base
Calculating the cross-section of a dike on horizontal ground
Calculating the cross-section of a dike on sloping ground
Calculating the cross-section of a dike on irregular ground
Calculating the volume of dikes on horizontal and regular ground
Calculating the volume of dikes on sloping or irregular ground
Calculating the volume of a dam for a barrage pond
Calculating volumes of excavated material​

6.5 Constructing dug-out ponds
Selecting soil for dug-out ponds
Building a dug-out pond​

6.6 Constructing barrage ponds
Obtaining the soil material for construction
Staking out the base of the dam and setting out the earthwork
Preparing for the construction of the dam
Building the first part of the dam
Finishing the barrage pond​

6.7 Constructing paddy ponds
Staking out the base of the dikes
Preparing for the construction of the dikes
Building the dikes of a paddy pond manually
Finishing the dikes
Building bottom slopes and drains for paddy ponds
Building the dikes of a paddy pond using machinery
Building a series of adjoining paddy ponds​

6.8 Constructing cut-and-fill ponds
Balancing cut-and-fill on horizontal ground
Balancing cut-and-fill on sloping ground
Estimating cut-and-fill volumes on irregular ground
Cut-and-fill volumes for groups of ponds
Staking out a cut-and-fill pond on horizontal ground
Staking out a cut-and-fill pond on regular sloping ground
Staking out a cut-and-fill pond on a very irregular slope
Building the dikes manually
Completing the cut-and-fill pond
Building the dikes using machinery​

6.9 Protecting dikes against erosion by rain
Protect new dikes as soon as they are built
Selecting the grass cover​
6.10 Pond-bottom drains
Designing the network of drains
6.11 First filling of the pond

7. MAIN WATER INTAKE STRUCTURES

7.0 Introduction
Selecting the water intake structures
Main water intakes
Locating the main water intake along a stream​

7.1 How to define the level of the water intake
7.2 The size of the water intake
7.3 Simple diversion structures
Earthen barrage dam
Bamboo or wooden pole barrier
Wooden plank barrier​
7.4 Submergible diversion structures
Wooden pole barrier
Rock barrier
Gabion barrier​

7.5 Adjustable diversion structures
Two pillar barrage
Three pillar barrage​

7.6 Adjustable main water intake structures
Two major types of structure
Controlling water flow
Ensuring good water control
Estimating the flow rate through the intake
Protecting the intake from erosion​
7.7 Screens and intake protection
Using screens
Protecting the intake structures​

8. WATER TRANSPORT STRUCTURES

8.0 Introduction
8.1 Types of open water canals
8.2 Design of canals
Planning the shape of the canal
Selecting the side slope for a trapezoidal canal
Selecting the slope for the bottom of a canal
Determining the maximum velocity of water flow in canals
Calculating the geometry of the canal and its hydraulic radius.
The coefficient of roughness of a canal
The significance of slope or gradient
Predicting the water capacity of earthen canals
Predicting the water carrying capacity of lined canals
Using graphs to design a water canal
Using the Manning equation to calculate the carrying capacity of a water canal
Calculating and checking the average water velocity in the canal
Determining the characteristic dimensions of the optimum trapezoidal canal
Determining the slope of the canal bottom
Losing water from an earthen canal
Determining the freeboard for the canal
Making curves in canals
Some other points to remember​

8.3 Water feeder canals
Special points about feeder canals
Determining the size of earthen feeder canals
When to use lined feeder canals
Important facts about lined feeder canals​

8.4 How to prepare for the construction of a canal
Setting slope stakes on sloping ground
Building an earthen canal by hand
Building a clay-lined canal
Building a concrete-lined canal
Building a brick or block-lined canal
Using a cement or stone slab lining
Using precast linings
Using flexible linings​

8.5 Drainage canals
8.6 Diversion canals
8.7 Water control structures for canals
Lateral overflow gates
Three-way division boxes
Two-way division boxes
Drop structures
End overflow gates​
8.8 Simple aqueducts
8.9 Pipes and siphons
Short pipelines
Siphons​

9. POND INLET STRUCTURES

9.0 Introduction
When do you need an inlet structure?
Different types of inlet structures
Designing inlets​

9.1 Pipe inlets
9.2 Gutter inlets
9.3 Canal inlets
9.4 Aerating and mixing incoming water
9.5 Dike protection at a pond inlet

10. POND OUTLET STRUCTURES

10.0 Outlet structures
10.1 Important points when designing outlets
Sizing outlet pipes
Placing and fixing outlet pipes
Additional overflow structures​
10.2 Simple outlets for small ponds
Using a cut in the dike
Using a siphon as a pond outlet​
10.3 Simple pipe outlets
Using a simple pipe and stopper
The flexible tube stand-pipe
The turn-down stand-pipe​
10.4 The sluice gate
Building a wooden sluice gate
Building a sluice gate with bricks or concrete blocks
Building a sluice gate with reinforced concrete
Operating the sluice gate​

10.5 The monk outlet
Locating the monk
How much water should a monk discharge
Materials to build a monk​
10.6 Wooden monk outlets
Choosing the wood
Building the wooden pipeline
Building the wooden monk tower​
10.7 Small brick, concrete block and concrete monks
Constructing monk pipelines
Laying the pipeline
Using a concrete culvert
Building the monk tower foundation
Preparing a piled foundation
Building the concrete monk tower​

10.8 Reinforced concrete monks
Building the pipeline foundation
Laying the pipeline
Building the monk tower foundation
Preparing the steel reinforcement
Building the reinforced concrete tower​

10.9 Wooden forms for concrete monks
Preparing a plywood form for small monks
Preparing a plank form for larger monks​

10.10 Water control for sluice or monk
Grooves and boards
Selecting the boards to use​

11. FLOOD AND SILT CONTROL STRUCTURES

11.0 Introduction
11.1 How to discharge excess water from ponds
11.2 The pipe overflow
Choosing the correct type of pipe overflow
Building a pipe overflow
Selecting the type of pipe to use​

11.3 The mechanical spillway
What is a mechanical spillway?
Designing a mechanical spillway
Building a mechanical spillway
Designing and building the spillway channel​

11.4 The emergency spillway
What is an emergency spillway?
Selecting a freeboard for the dike
Determining the width of the emergency spillway
Designing the emergency spillway
Locating the emergency spillway
Protecting the earthen emergency spillway​

11.5 Protection canals
11.6 Settling basins
Designing the settling basin
Improving the design of the settling basin​

11.7 Stilling basins
Designing a stilling basin
Improving the design of the stilling basin​

12. DETAILED PLANNING FOR FISH FARM CONSTRUCTION

12.0 Introduction
12.1 When to build the fish farm
12.2 Who will construct the fish farm?
12.3 Constructing the fish farm
12.4 Making detailed plans and drawings
12.5 Making specifications for construction contracts
12.6 Making a schedule of activities
12.7 Working standards for planning purposes
Working standards for manual earthwork
Working standards for transporting earth with wheelbarrows
Average output of various types of machinery
Working standards for construction of structures​
12.8 Estimating the cost of construction


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